Topics Summary


What is the KERNEL?



  • Kernel is the part of the operating system that interacts directly with the hardware. 
  • It is used to provide an application interface between programs and physical devices.
  • The kernel is the heart of the operating system.
  • This program was developed in C.
  • There are three types of kernels available.

          1. Monolithic kernels

          2. Micro kernels

          3. Hybrid kernels


Monolithic kernels are used by the Linux systems.

Hybrid kernels are used by the Windows and OS-X.

Micro kernels are used in Minix operating systems.


Architecture of Kernel:



  • Shell takes the user processes to the kernel.
  • The kernel program has kernel interface routines.
  • The kernel interface routines differentiate the process types.
  • The different types of processes are

         1. Processes management

         2. Memory management

         3. File system management

         4. I/O services


  • The processes management and memory management are handled by the Scheduler to access the hardware.
  • The file system management is handled by the I/O buffers to access the hardware.
  • The I/O services are handled by the Device drivers to access the hardware.
  • The name of kernel in Linux is Vmlinuz.